The your lumbar spine and hips. Cholesterol levels will

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data to be collected from the participants during the study is blood pressure,
body composition, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and inflammation (focused on
CRP-protein). Blood pressure can be measured with the auscultatory (Korotkoff)
method with an instrument called a sphygmomanometer. Blood pressure measurement
consists of two numbers, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, representing
the blood pressure when the heart is pumping and when it is at rest. First, a
cuff is placed around the participant’s arm and inflated with a pump until the
circulation is cut off. A small valve slowly deflates the cuff, and the individual
measuring blood pressure uses a stethoscope, placed over one’s arm, to listen
for the sound of blood pulsing through the arteries. The first sound of rushing
blood refers to the systolic blood pressure; once the sound fades, the second
number indicates the diastolic pressure. High blood pressure is systolic blood
pressure (SBP) of 140 mmHg or greater, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90
mmHg or greater, or taking antihypertensive medication (7). Blood pressure
readings can be easily affected by factors like smoking, caffeinated drinks,
and recent physical activity, so the participants should be controlled. The DEXA
(dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) Scan will be used to measure the
participant’s body composition. The DEXA scan is the best choice in measuring
body composition due to its extreme accuracy. It also calculates bone
concentration levels, recognizes visceral body fat, and analyzes mass variances
and body fat percentages on diverse areas of the body (20). A DEXA scan takes roughly
fifteen minutes where the participant will lie down on the table. It is
recommended for participants to come in clothes without metal to produce the
highest accuracy of results (20). A small X-ray will scan your lumbar spine and
hips. Cholesterol levels will use the lipoprotein profile to measure the HDL
cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood. This test processes the amount of
cholesterol and other substances in a person’s blood (7). LDL (“bad”)
cholesterol can be harmful when they build up in the blood (7). LDL cholesterol
can lead to congested, swollen arteries. This may keep one’s heart from working
normally if the arteries of one’s heart muscle are affected. This tests mainly aids
calculating one’s risk for heart disease. Results are given in milligrams per
deciliter (mg/dL). The goal for people with diabetes or heart disease is to
have an LDL cholesterol less than 100 mg/dL (optimal) (14). An individual’s HDL
cholesterol levels should be above 40 mg/dL. The higher the number, the lower the
risk of heart disease. Sixty mg/dL or above is considered the level to protect a
person against heart disease (14). The participant may need to not eat or drink
anything but water for 12 to 14 hours before this test. The test is done with a
blood sample, which is drawn through a needle from a vein in your arm. We
can measure signs of inflammation. Most commonly, we use one of two tests:
erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein. In this study, we will
use the CRP test due to its accuracy and specificity. C-reactive protein (CRP)
is a material formed by the liver in reaction to irritation. A high level of
CRP in the blood is a marker of inflammation (5). No special preparation is
necessary for this test. The participant may eat normally on the day of the
test. A nurse will get blood from a person’s vein, typically on inside the
elbow.