The Identification of most preferred information sources and channels

The
present study was undertaken to critically analyse the Information Management
Behaviour of Dairy farmers in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. The data was
collected from five villages of Mangalur block comprising of 60 respondents
through structured interview schedule. Family
members and progressive farmers were the most preferred personal localite
sources of dairy information on improved farm practices. Veterinarians were the
major personal cosmopolite source of information. Dairy farmers discuss their
ideas with family members to evaluate the information and try to memories it
for further use in transfer of technologies in their farm situation. Television,
radio and newspaper were the most preferred impersonal cosmopolite sources.
Efforts should be made to educate the
farmers to participate in training, field days, field trip, exhibition for
increasing awareness and knowledge and better understanding of technologies.

Key
words: Personal cosmopolite, Localite, Dairy farmers, Cuddalore

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INTRODUCTION

In, India
Dairying is very important in improving the socio-economic status of the rural
poor by reducing the long lasting problems of unemployment and underemployment.
It provides nutrition, draft animal power, organic manure, supplementary employment
and cash income (Patel, 1993). The enlarged demand for milk and milk products
will surely have implications for livestock production systems and for
livestock producers in poor rural areas who are trying to adapt changing social
economical market and trade circumstances (Rao et al. 2005)

            Adoption of improved
farm practices by the dairy farmers varies, depending upon their situation and
availability of information sources. Identification of most preferred
information sources and channels by the dairy farmers will be helpful for
extension agencies and persons engaged in transfer of technology programmes,
thus selection of appropriate information sources is very important for
effective and rapid transfer of technologies (Sharma et al. 2008). The choice and use of different sources and channels
of dairy information depends on the credibility of the information channel.
Therefore keeping in view of the above situation, an effort was made to know
more about the Information Management Behaviour of Dairy farmers in Cuddalore
district.

METHODOLOGY

            The
study was conducted in Mangalore block of Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. The
data were collected randomly from 60 farmers of five villages in Mangalore block
by using structured interview schedule. In
this study information management behavior were studied under three different categories,
viz., Information input pattern, Information processing pattern and Information
output pattern. The responses of
the respondents were obtained through three point continuum i.e. frequently,
occasionally and never with the score 3, 2 and 1 were respectively. Data were
analysed and ranked with the help of Total score, Mean
Percent Score and Weight Mean Score.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The
sources and channels available to dairy farmers for seeking information on
improved dairy practices were studied in 3 categories and presented in Table 1.

I.
Information
Input Pattern

          Information
input pattern were studied under two categories, viz., frequency of contact and
usefulness of sources and presented below.

A.
Frequency of contact of information sources

            In
personal cosmopolite sources, Veterinarians (MPS 86.11 & WMS 2.58) were the
most frequently contacted by the respondents followed by Para veterinarians
(MPS 77.22 & WMS 2.32), Dairy co-operatives (MPS 68.89 & WMS 2.07) and
Private dairies (MPS 48.33 & WMS 1.45). The University scientists (MPS
33.33 & WMS 1.00) were the least preferred cosmopolite information sources.
Veterinarians being accessible to the farmers might have been contacted
regularly to seek information on improved practices in dairy. Similar findings
were reported by Nande et al.
(2009).

            Among
personal localite sources, family members (MPS 95.00 & WMS 2.85),
progressive farmers (MPS-78.33 & WMS 2.35), friends (MPS 76.67 & WMS
2.30), neighbors (MPS 72.22 & WMS 2.17) and relatives (MPS 71.67 & WMS
2.15) were most preferred sources of dairy formers for seeking information.
Local leaders (MPS 48.89 & WMS 1.47) were least preferred information
sources. Similar findings were reported by Nande et al.
(2009) and Chauhan and Kansal (2014).  

Television (MPS 69.44 & WMS 2.08) was the most
preferred impersonal cosmopolite sources of dairy information as perceived by
the respondents. These findings got support from those by Garai et al. (2012) and Chauhan and Kansal (2014).  Newspaper (MPS 35.56 &
WMS 1.07), Internet (MPS 33.33 & WMS 1.00), books (MPS 33.33 & WMS 1.00)
and journals (MPS 33.33 & WMS 1.00) were utilized by only few respondents
in information seeking.

Table1.
Sources and channels of dairy information utilized by farmers for information
seeking on improved dairy farm practices (N=60)

Sl. No

Sources

Frequency of contact

Usefulness of contact

TS

MPS

WMS

Rank

TS

MPS

WMS

Rank

I

Personal cosmopolite sources

1

Veterinarians

155

86.11

2.58

1

165

91.67

2.75

1

2

Para veterinarians

139

77.22

2.32

2

134

74.44

2.23

2

3

Private dairies

87

48.33

1.45

4

85

47.22

1.42

4

4

Dairy co-operatives

124

68.89

2.07

3

124

68.89

2.07

3

5

University scientists

60

33.33

1.00

5

60

33.33

1.00

5

II

Personal localite sources

1

Family members

171

95.00

2.85

1

163

90.56

2.72

1

2

Friends

138

76.67

2.30

3

134

74.44

2.23

2

3

Neighbours

130

72.22

2.17

4

120

66.67

2.00

5

4

Relatives

129

71.67

2.15

5

124

68.89

2.07

4

5

Progressive farmers

141

78.33

2.35

2

130

72.22

2.17

3

6

Local  leaders

88

48.89

1.47

6

91

50.56

1.52

6

III

Impersonal cosmopolite sources

1

Television

125

69.44

2.08

1

119

66.11

1.98

1

2

Radio

73

40.56

1.22

2

70

38.89

1.17

2

3

Newspaper

64

35.56

1.07

3

65

36.11

1.08

3

4

Internet

60

33.33

1.00

4

60

33.33

1.00

4

5

Books

60

33.33

1.00

5

60

33.33

1.00

5

6

Journals

60

33.33

1.00

6

60

33.33

1.00

6

 

B. Usefulness of
information sources

Veterinarians
(MPS 91.67 & WMS 2.75) were the most usefulpersonal cosmopolite sources for
the farmers. Para veterinarians (MPS 74.44 & WMS 2.23), dairy co-operatives
(MPS 68.89 & WMS 2.07) and private dairies (MPS 47.22 & WMS 1.42) were
accorded second, third and fourth rank respectively.  The University scientists (MPS 33.33 &
WMS 1.00) were the least useful cosmopolite information sources in the study area.
Among personal localite sources, family members (MPS 90.56 & WMS 2.72) were
most useful sources as perceived by the farmers followed by progressive farmers
(MPS-72.22 & WMS 2.17), friends (MPS-74.44 & WMS 2.23), neighbors (MPS
66.67 & WMS 2.00), relatives (MPS 68.89 & WMS 2.07) and local leaders (MPS
50.56 & WMS 1.52). During the investigation it was observed that farmers
discussed within the family members to solve their problems related to dairy
farming.

Television
(MPS 66.11 & WMS 1.98) and radio (MPS 38.89 & WMS 1.17) were the most
preferred impersonal cosmopolite channels of dairy information as perceived by
the respondents. Newspaper (MPS 36.11& WMS 1.08), internet (MPS 33.33 &
WMS 1.00), books (MPS 33.33 & WMS 1.00) and journals (MPS 33.33 & WMS 1.00)
were utilized by only few respondents in information seeking. It was suggested
that the extension workers in the area should arrange media forum groups (radio
and television) to discuss the contents of radio/television agricultural program
which would enable effective transfer of new technologies.

II. Information
Processing Pattern

Information processing
pattern were studied under two categories, viz.,Evaluation of information and
preservation of information and presented below.

A. Evaluation
items

            Majority
of them evaluated the received information through discussing with family
members (MPS 93.89 & WMS 2.82), referring their past experiences (MPS 88.33
& WMS 2.65) and discussing with progressive farmers (MPS 81.67 & WMS 2.45).
Similar findings were reported by Garai et al.
(2012) and Manhas et al. (2013). Accepted information
as such and discussing with university scientists were least methods used by
the dairy farmers (Table 2).

 

 

 

Table
2. Evaluation items utilized by farmers for seeking information on improved
dairy farm practices (N=60)

Sl.
No

Evaluation
items

TS

MPS

WMS

Rank

1

Discussing
with family members

169

93.89

2.82

1

2

Discussing
with Progressive farmers

147

81.67

2.45

3

3

Discussing
with neighbours and friends

146

81.11

2.43

4

4

Discussing
with staff of the animal husbandry department like AD/VAS

123

68.33

2.05

6

5

Discussing
with scientist of the university

60

33.33

1.00

9

6

Referring
the past experience

159

88.33

2.65

2

7

Considering  economic profitability

128

71.11

2.13

5

8

Considering
simplicity-complexity in use

116

64.44

1.93

7

9

Accepted
as such

68

37.78

1.13

8

B.
Methods of preservation

      Table 3 indicated that most of the dairy
farmers preferred to preserve the information in memory alone
(MPS 94.44 & WMS 2.83). Findings
were in line with those reported by       
Garai et al. (2012) and
Meena et al. (2017). None of them preserve the
information in CD or pen drive or personal computers. Farm literatures, writing
in notebook or preserve the newspaper cutting were least preferred as they were
illiterates.

Table3.  Methods of preservation by farmers for
seeking information on improved dairy farm practices (N=60)

Sl.No

Methods
of preservation

TS

MPS

WMS

Rank

1

Memorising
it

170

94.44

2.83

1

2

Telling
family members to remember

159

88.33

2.65

2

3

Preserve
the newspaper cutting

67

37.22

1.12

4

4

Preserve
the printed materials like leaflets, folders, bulletins etc.,

75

41.67

1.25

3

5

Taking
down in a notebook

66

36.67

1.10

5

6

Preserve
the information in CD/Pen drive/Personal computers

60

33.33

1.00

6

 

III.
Information Output Pattern

        The information output
pattern were analysed and presented (Table 4). Disseminating information with family
members and relatives (MPS 91.67 & WMS 2.75) and next to those who come and
ask them (MPS 76.67 & WMS 2.30) were the most preferred way in transfer of
technologies. Similar results were also reported by Garai et al. (2012), Manhas et al.
(2013) and Meena et al.
(2017).

Table4. Methods of
dissemination by farmers for seeking information on improved dairy farm
practices (N=60)

Sl.No

Methods
of dissemination

TS

MPS

WMS

Rank

1

Family
members and relatives 

165

91.67

2.75

1

2

Those who come and ask

138

76.67

2.30

2

3

Neighbours
and friends

133

73.89

2.22

3

4

All
the dairy farmers

106

58.89

1.77

4

 

CONCLUSION
AND RECOMMENDATION

 

·        
Family members and
progressive farmers were the most preferred personal localite sources of dairy
information on improved farm practices. To enhance the effectiveness of
progressive farmers in transfer of technologies, there is a need to equip them
with technically accurate information through training and other educational
programmes and the field workers should use them to maximum possible extent.

·        
Veterinarians were the
major personal cosmopolite source. It was suggested that the authorities should
consider filling of existing vacant post of veterinarians for the well-being of
farmers in the area. It is recommended to establish a well-equipped dairy
information centre. This centre should be well equipped with radio, television,
farm newspaper and literatures in order to provide necessary information to
farmers in the area.

·        
Dairy farmers discuss
their ideas with family members to evaluate the information and try to memories
it for further use in transfer of technologies in their farm situation.

·        
Television, radio and
newspaper were the most preferred impersonal cosmopolite sources as perceived
by the respondents. So it is suggested to arrange media forum groups to discuss
the contents of radio/television agricultural programmes which would enable
effective transfer of new technologies.