The bacteria usually live in the endospore form when

The bacterium are normally found in the soil, living
in inactive spore forms4. The inactive form lives in the ground
undisturbed but regularly infects wild animals after ingestion of the spores.

The spores can be transported by different herbivores and domestic farm animals
such as cattle, goats, and deer4. In areas of common infection, animals
have regular vaccination to prevent outbreaks and there is an increased risk of
transmission between the people that encounter these animals along with the
skins, mead, and bones of the animals4. In order for the cells to
germinate without a host, it needs optimal conditions such as alkaline pH, high
organic and moisture levels in addition to warmer tmeperatures4.

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 Different factors can enhance the density of
spores in a particular area. Some factors include increased rainfall, and
warmer temperatures. Increased rainfall after a drought in particular increases
the movement of the bacteria and can deposit the Bacillus Anthracis spores into a new area such as a pasture for
cattle or sheep. Vultures are also known to carry the spores after harvesting
on an infected carcass and help spread the endospores to other parts of the
world. The spores can live in the soil for decades and once they have become established
in an area, its almost impossible to remove them1. The bacterium
have become resistant to different types of disinfectants which increases the
risk of coming in contact with a herbivorous animal or occupational worker. The
bacteria usually live in the endospore form when exposed to different
environmental elements until they find a host that provided them with optimal
conditions. A temperature between 8 and 45 degrees Celsius, pH of 5-9,
increased humidity and adequate nutrients will begin the germination process of
the spores6. There has been increasing amounts of research regarding
the survival of anthrax spore in the permafrost in Artic regions from centuries
ago as the increase in climate change thaws the regions, unveiling new possible
outbreaks.

            The main preventative measure is a vaccine that is
not available to the public. The vaccine is given to military personnel in the
United States only with some exceptions for medical officials in the time of an
anthrax emergency6. There is a pre-exposure vaccination that is
recommended for agricultural workers with risk of coming in contact with
contaminated animals. The vaccination is also recommended for workers in
laboratories that are concentrating on the strains in a BSL 2 or higher lab,
and veterinarians that are at a high risk of being infected through
occupational exposures in various countries6.

If
there was a health hazard bioterrorist threat in the form of inhalation
anthrax, the Center of Disease Control has plans of action to isolate the
infected and prevent additional infections. The use of monitoring systems
throughout the United States would be one of the first methods of detecting the
spores after the release2. The other method of surveillance would be
the reporting by doctors when patients start exhibiting symptoms and lab
testing is ordered. The response would be to send the sample through the
Laboratory Response network and educating other health care professionals on
the issue along with the general public2. Once confirmed, medicine
and additional supplies from the Strategic National Stockpile would be
dispersed in the designated locations2. These preventative steps
would prevent further infections from the virulent bacteria and protect the at
risk populations.