OVERVIEW heaps of samples. The most advanced of these

OVERVIEW OF BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

INTRODUCTION

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Biochemical examination strategies allude to an arrangement
of techniques, tests, and methods that empower researchers to investigate the
substances found in living life forms and the compound responses fundamental
life forms. By these strategies it turn out to be very simple to break down
heaps of samples. The most advanced of these methods are saved for forte
research and demonstrative labs.

SOME COMMON BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

·        
Microscopy

·        
Flame
photometry

·        
Fluorometry

·        
Infrared
spectroscopy

·        
Ultraviolet
spectroscopy

·        
Nuclear
magnetic resonance spectroscopy

·        
Mass
spectroscopy

·        
Raman
spectroscopy

·        
X
ray diffraction

 

1.  MICROSCOPY

Microscopy
is a technique which is used to see tiny particles or organism that cannot be
seen with our eyes.

Microscope Types & Principles

A general organic
magnifying instrument for the most part comprises of a goal focal point, visual
focal point, focal point tube, stage, and reflector. A protest put on the stage
is amplified through the goal focal point. At the point when the objective is
engaged, an amplified picture can be seen through the visual focal point.

Applications
of Microscopes

·        
The
main application of microscopes is scientific research.

·        
Microscopes
can be used to look at data collected from a crime scene.

·        
Used
in laboratories for studying different kinds of cells

 

2.  FLAME PHOTOMETRY    

 Flame photometry, a branch of atomic
spectroscopy is used for inorganic chemical analysis and the spectrum are in
the form of atoms.

PARTS OF A FLAME PHOTOMETER

1. Source of flame: this provides blaze and
constant tempreture

2.
Nebuliser: helps transport homogeneous solution into flame

3.
Optical system: transmits light

4.
Photo detector: calculates the intensity of radiation

Application

·        
Used to determine
calcium and magnesium in cement

·        
Determination of
alkali and alkaline earth metals

·        
Determination of
petrol

 

3.  Fluoromety

An analytic method for detecting fluorescent
compounds using a beam of ultraviolet light that excites the compounds and
causes them to emit visible light.

4. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

IR
spectroscopy is the spectroscopic technique which uses the Infrared light and
studies its interaction with the molecules and give a lot of information about
the functional groups associated.

Principle

The
sum of vibration energy, rotational and electronic energies is equal to energy
of molecules.

 

5. Ultraviolet spectroscopy

UV
spectroscopy is sort of assimilation spectroscopy in which light of
ultra-violet area (200-400 nm.) is consumed by the molecule. The other name of
UV (Ultra-Violet) spectroscopy is Electronic spectroscopy as it includes the
advancement of the electrons from the beginning to the higher vitality or energized
state.

PRINCIPLE

UV
spectroscopy complies with the Lager Lambert law, which expresses that: when a
light emission light is gone through an answer of an engrossing substance, the
rate of abatement of power of radiation with thickness of the retaining
arrangement is corresponding to the occurrence radiation and also the centralization
of the arrangement.

6. Nuclear Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Nuclear
Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an analytical chemistry technique used
in quality control and research for determining the content and purity of a
sample as well as its molecular structure.

APPLICATION

Together,
NMR and MRI revolutionized the practice of chemistry and medicine by providing
fast, non-destructive, and non-invasive means for the observation of matter
from the atomic to the macroscopic scale.

7. Mass spectroscopy

Mass
spectrometry (MS) analysis of proteins measures the mass-to-charge ratio of
ions to identify and quantify molecules in simple and complex mixtures.

Basic Principle

A
mass spectrometer produces various particles from the example under scrutiny,
it at that point isolates them as per their particular mass-to-charge
proportion (m/z), and afterward records the relative wealth of every particle
write.

Components

The
instrument consists of three major components:

·        
Ion Source:
For producing gaseous ions from the substance being studied.

·        
Analyzer:
For resolving the ions into their characteristics mass components according to
their mass-to-charge ratio.

·        
Detector System: For detecting the ions and recording the
relative abundance of each of the resolved ionic species.

8. Raman spectroscopy

Raman
spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on inelastic scattering of
monochromatic light, usually from a laser source.

Advantages of Raman Spectroscopy

·        
Specificity: Raman bands have a good signal-to-noise
ratio and are non-overlapping.

·        
Analysis of
aqueous systems: IR  for analysis of aqueous solutions due to
heavy interference by the water bands.

·        
Short measurement
times: A Raman spectrum can, typically, be
acquired on a timescale

·        
No sample
preparation: Raman requires
no special preparation of the sample.

 

9. X ray diffraction

X-beam
diffraction, a marvel in which the iotas of a precious stone, by prudence of
their uniform dispersing, cause an impedance example of the waves show in an
episode light emission beams. The nuclear planes of the precious stone follow
up on the X beams in the very same way as completes a consistently controlled
grinding on a light emission.