Other on the definition of emotional intelligence among researchers,





Other psychometric measures for the ability model of emotional
intelligence include, “Diagnostic Analysis of Non-verbal Accuracy” (this test consists
of pictures of happy, mad, angry, sad, and fearful facial expressions. Participants
task is to answer which mood is present in each picture) (Mayer,
Roberts, Barsade, 2008). Also the “Japanese and Caucasian Brief Affect
Recognition test” (Participants have to identify Caucasian, and Japanese
individuals showing various of emotions e.g. happiness, sadness, anger, and so
on. These images may change quite quickly as well) (Mayer, Roberts, Barsade, 2008).
And finally, the “Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale” (In this test
participants must read various social scenes, which after they have to answer their
expected feelings, and continuum of low to high emotional awareness) (Mayer, Roberts,
Barsade, 2008).

Firstly, in order to measure emotional intelligence, it is
vital to understand the concept of emotional intelligence. There has been
disagreements on the definition of emotional intelligence among researchers, and
as a result there are different models of emotional intelligence which are; ability
model, mixed model (usually listed under trait EI) and, trait model. (Mayer, Roberts,
Barsade, 2008; MacCann, Joseph, Newman, Roberts, 2014; Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, Sitarenios,
2001). Additionally this has also caused there to be different types of tools
for assessment in emotional intelligence (Ciarrochi, Chan, Caputi, Roberts, 2001).
For the ability model, Salovey and Mayer tried to
present emotional intelligence as a new intelligence. One of their other early
definitions that they coined was; the capability to distinguish emotions, comprehend
emotions, direct emotion to enable thought, and finally adjust emotions in
order to pursue personal goals (MacCann, Joseph, Newman, Roberts, 2014; Mayer, Salovey,
Caruso, Sitarenios, 2001). But after their extended research they finally concluded
on a definition for emotional intelligence; ability to reason about emotions,
as well as of emotions, to result improvement in thinking, comprehending
emotional knowledge, and being able to access emotions and generate them, and
finally to be able to regulate emotions to have emotional and intellectual development
(Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, 2004). The measurement for Salovey and Mayer’s emotional
intelligence model is called the “Mayer-Salovey-Caruso
Emotional Intelligence Test” (MSCEIT). The MSCEIT contains a series
of emotion-based problem-solving items (Salovey, Grewal, 2005; Mayer, Salovey,
Caruso, Sitarenios, 2003). This specific test produces scores for each
specific category (“Perceiving emotions”, “Using emotions”, “Understanding
emotions”, and “Managing emotions”), and a final score as well. Some examples
of the question types in test include; “Answer which emotional strategy would
be best in social relationships as well as managing one’s self.” (Salovey, Grewal, 2005; Mayer, Salovey,
Caruso, Sitarenios, 2003). The benefit of the MSCEIT is that it does not include
self-reporting, which can question the validity of the measure (Ciarrochi, Chan,
Caputi, Roberts, 2001).

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Now the measurement of emotional intelligence is something
that has received criticism and scepticism, as research argue that this is due
to the lack of psychometric and statistical rigour (Brody, 2004). Although some
research has also suggested the contrary, by arguing that emotional
intelligence can actually be assessed reliably, in a way that is separate from
intelligence and other similar factors (Ciarrochi, Chan,
Caputi, Roberts, 2001). The following paper will be critically evaluating the
psychometric approach to emotional intelligence. This paper will also discuss
how psychometric tests are developed, and their properties, as well as the strengths
and weaknesses in research and applied settings.

People experience an array of emotions, such as sadness,
happiness, anger, shame, fear and so on. Such emotions are just the few that
have an affect in our daily lives, whether this may be at a work setting, or in
an individual’s personal life. A psychological construct called emotional
intelligence is suggested to work in such situations (Matthews, Roberts, Zeidner,
2011). The term emotional intelligence was first presented by Peter Salovey and
John Mayer in 1990, and is described as the ability to recognise one’s own
emotions as well as the emotions of others (Palmer, Gignac, Manocha, Stough, 2005;
Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, 2000; Matthews, Roberts, Zeidner, 2011). And not only are
individuals able to recognise their emotions, but they also are able to label
them accordingly (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, 2000; Matthews, Roberts, Zeidner, 2011).
Emotional intelligence also allows individuals to regulate emotions, and use
emotional information to act and or behave in way that helps them achieve their
goals (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, 2000). Emotional intelligence was differentiated
from IQ, and was also suggested that, emotional abilities plays more of an
important role than does cognitive abilities in workplace and life success (Perloff,
1997; Goleman, 1999).