In 2016. It can be clearly seen that Indian

In the past few decades, India has developed in many areas, including agriculture. It is the backbone of the Indian economy, as are the farmers. Indian farmers’ agricultural problems from the past decade. This has resulted in a decline in the growth of Indian agriculture. A recent study (Government of India Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation, 2017) found that the growth in the gross domestic product (GDP) was 7.1 percent during 2016 to 2017, which is decreased compared to the growth rate of 7.9 percent in 2015 to 2016. It can be clearly seen that Indian GDP is decreasing. Despite the fact that Indian agriculture is still encountering some problems, they can be solved to a certain extent. This essay will focus on the problems of agriculture faced by Indian farmers and will offer possible solutions, followed by evaluations of the solution.Today, one of the major issues faced by Indian farmers is small and fragmented lands. In some states, the average land holding by the farmer is decreased. The average size of farms has reduced to 1.37 hectare in 2001 to 2.3 hectare in 1970. (S., 2012, p.2). The problem of small and fragmented lands is happening mostly because of inheritance law. The land owned by the father is going to be equally distributed among his sons. For example, if a father has 10 acres of land and two sons, it is going to be distributed to his sons as 5-5 acres. Both sons will get small parts of the land. In this way lands from one generation to another on lands will become smaller. This can cause low production and makes difficult to provide irrigation, in comparison with big farms. To solve this problem the possible solution could be vertical farming. Vertical farming means cultivating plants or crops within a skyscraper building or greenhouse, Vertical farming is modern and sustainable farming, even house could be transformed into a vertical farm. According to Garg and Balodi (2014, p.2), as cited in the encyclopedia of earth, (2010) in vertical farming a 30-storey long building with 5 acres of an area can produce 2,400 acres crop of traditional farming. It means vertical farms can produce more in small lands in comparison with traditional horizontal farming. A country like Singapore who does have a big area to utilize is using vertical farming as a solution to a problem of small land. This solution seems to help Indian farmers to some extent but the high cost would become the problem because many farmers cannot afford a vertical farm.The lack of water is another significant problem in Indian agriculture. For water, India mostly depends on the rain and rivers but that is not enough for the whole population of India. A government publication (Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, 2016) stated that India has only 4 percent of the world’s renewable water resources. This is not enough for the whole population of the nation. Water is the major ingredient in agriculture, without it not a single seed can grow. A sufficient amount of water is needed in agriculture, and a lack of water can destroy whole crops. This problem can be solved by efforts of the government. They should encourage people to make rain harvesting infrastructure, which can save rainwater in underground or on the surface. Also, dams should be constructed on Rivers to save water, so the water could be used for harvesting. This can help solve the problem, but still not enough to provide the water to all of the farmers in India. Another possible solution to this issue could be using Irrigation methods. Irrigation with appropriate fertilizers can help to grow crops better. However, the Initial cost of irrigation is very high and thereby the cultivators have to pay more taxes in the form of levy. Another serious obstacle for Indian farmers is agricultural marketing. Marketing requires selling agricultural products not only in domestic market, but also in the international market. One factor that affects the agricultural marketing is lack of market information. Many Indian farmers are illiterate, so they do not know much about the situation of the market. Also, they are still out of the reach of technology. Due to this, they have to accept the price of a buyer. One of the ways to overcome this obstacle is by providing market information to the farmers. In this process information is given to farmers that what could happen in near future on market:Market information and intelligence are crucial to enable farmers and traders to make informed decisions about what to grow, when to harvest, where to market to produce and whether to store it or not. Marketing intelligence helps in becoming more competitive by improving strategic decisions and this lead to better performance against competitors. (Yadav, 2016, p.63)It is vitally important to give knowledge of markets to farmers. With that, they can decide what to do and what not. This solution can help to get information of the current market but still, there is a doubt that even after getting knowledge there is no surety about the farmers getting the full amount for their harvest in monetary terms. Another possible way to deal with this problem is by creating regulated markets. Regulated markets mean they run by the government on some rules, which aim to create the systematic structure of the agricultural market, where farmers can sell their products direct to the public. It seems this solution is solving the problem of marketing and helps to get the original amount of farmers’ products.Inadequate storage facilities are also a big issue for Indian agriculture. India has a poor condition of storage facilities, either there is no storage facility or it is highly unsatisfactory. In storage very large number of farmers’ production is being damaged. As Chaturvedi, and Raj ta (2015, p.39) explains that substantial quantity of grains about 6.0% to 10% of total production is damaged in the storage receptacles due to moisture, insects, rodents, and fungi. As it can be seen storage facilities are not secure for farmers. Due to this, they have to sell their harvest even with low or zero profit. One possible solution to this issue is by constructing cold storages. By constructing more cold storages load of storage could be distributed; more storage means more facilities. It can solve the problem of storage however, India, where lands price is increasing it is expansive to construct cold storage and maintain a quality of it.To sum up, Indian agriculture is dealing with some issues. Although there are many problems with it but, there are also solutions available to correct the problems. This essay has examined the issues of small lands, lack of water, agricultural marketing and inadequate storage facilities. If some crucial steps would not be taken about the situation of Indian agriculture than Indian government will have to pay a huge amount of price in form of decreased GDP, low production and high importation of goods. By using modern technology, using right methods and efforts of government these challenges of Indian agriculture could be solved to a degree still, it depends on how Indian government and farmers tackle to these problems.