Diabetes 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance, a condition

Diabetes is a
chronic and sometimes fatal disease, in which the body either cannot produce
insulin or cannot properly use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone
that controls the amount of blood glucose. Diabetes leads to high blood sugar
levels, which can damage organs, blood vessels and nerves. The body needs
insulin to use sugar as an energy source. There are three main types of
diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes results from the pancreas’s failure to
produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus”. The cause is unknown yet. Type 2 diabetes begins with
insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond properly to insulin.
This form was previously referred to as “non-insulin-dependent diabetes
mellitus”. Excessive body weight and insufficient exercise is the most common
cause. Gestational diabetes is the third main form, which occurs when pregnant
women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.

Background and History of Diabetes

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Diabetes mellitus occurs
throughout the world but is more common (especially type 2) in more developed
countries. However, the greatest increase in rates has been seen in
low-and-middle income countries, where more than 80% of diabetic deaths occur.
The fastest wide spreading is expected to occur in Africa and Asia. The
increase rates in developing countries follows the trend of the societies
become more unban and changes of lifestyle, including increasingly sedentary
lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the worldwide nutrition changing,
that marks by increased intake of foods that are high energy but poor nutrient,
often high in sugar and saturated fats.

In 400–500 CE, type 1 and type 2
diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian
physicians. Effective treatment was not developed until Canadians Frederick
Banting and Charles Herbert best isolated and purified insulin in 1921 and
1922. This was followed by the development of the long-acting insulin NPH in
the 1940s.

Symptoms of Diabetes

The signs and symptoms of diabetes
can include the following: unusual thirst; frequent urination; weight change
(gain or loss); extreme fatigue or lack of energy; blurred vision; frequent or
recurring infections; cuts and bruises that are slow to heal; tingling or
numbness in the hands or feet; trouble getting or maintaining an erection for
males.  If someone has any of these symptoms,
it is important to contact health-care provider right away. Even if you don’t
have symptoms, if you are 40 or older, you should still get checked. It is
important to recognize, however, that many people who have type 2 diabetes may
display no symptoms.

Tests to Diagnose the Diabetes

First one is
Fasting blood glucose test. You must not eat or drink anything except water for
at least eight hours before this test. A test result of 7.0 mmol/L or greater
indicates diabetes. Random blood glucose test, this test may be done at any
time, regardless of when you last ate. A test result of 11.0 mmol/L or greater,
additional symptoms of diabetes, indicates diabetes. Another one is oral
glucose tolerance test. You will be given a special sweetened drink prior to this
blood test. A test result of 11.1 mmol/L or greater taken two hours after
having the sweet drink indicates diabetes.
A second test must be done in all cases (except if you have acute signs and
symptoms). Once diabetes has been diagnosed, ask your doctor to refer you for
diabetes education and treatments
right away.

Complications of Diabetes

All forms of
diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop
after 10-20 years but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not
received a diagnosis before that time. The major long-term complications relate
to damage to blood vessels. Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease
and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to coronary artery disease. The
primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include
damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Damage to the eyes is caused by damage
to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye, and can result in gradual vision
loss and

                               

blindness. Damage to the
kidneys can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic
kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. Damage
to the nerves of the body is the most common complication of diabetes.

Key elements in diabetes management

Diabetes
education is an important first step. All people with diabetes need to be
informed about their condition. Regular physical activity helps your body lower
blood glucose levels, promotes weight loss, reduces stress and enhances overall
fitness. Maintaining a healthy weight is especially important in the management
of type 2 diabetes. What, when and how much you eat all play an important role
in regulating blood sugar levels. Learning to reduce stress levels in
day-to-day life can help people with diabetes better manage their disease. High
blood pressure can lead to eye disease, heart disease, stroke and kidney
disease, thus people with diabetes should try to maintain a blood pressure level
better below 130/80. You may need to change your eating and physical activity
habits or take medication if necessary.

Treatments for Diabetes

Type 1
diabetes is always treated with insulin. Type 2 diabetes is managed through meal
planning and physical activity. It may require medications or insulin to assist
your body in controlling blood glucose more effectively. Medications used to
treat diabetes by lowering blood sugar levels. There are a number of different
classifications of anti-diabetic medications. Some are available by mouth, such
as metformin,
while others are only available by injection. Metformin is
generally recommended as a first line treatment for type 2 diabetes, as
there is good evidence that it decreases mortality. It works by decreasing
the liver’s production of glucose. Several other groups of drugs, mostly
given by mouth, may also decrease blood sugar in type II diabetes. These
include agents that increase insulin release, agents that decrease absorption
of sugar from the intestines, and agents that make the body more sensitive to
insulin. When insulin is used in type 2 diabetes, doses of
insulin may be increased to effect. The cost of the oral antidiabetic agent
(for example, metformin 2 tablets twice a day) is around $27 for three months’
supply. Diabetic insulin is relatively expensive than oral agents, for example,
Novorapid costs $5 for 100unit/ml, and insulin glargine is around $7 for 100
units/ml. These two insulin are often required combined use, for example,
insert Novorapid 6 units three times a day and insulin glargine 14 units one
time a day at bedtime. The cost of three months of insulin use would be around
$170.

How Diabetes affects a
person’s daily life

Diabetes is
a demanding disease, so it can affect a person’s life in many ways. Managing
diabetes can be stressful. People who has diabetes must monitor blood glucose
regularly, eat carefully and do exercise frequently. Also they need to avoid
sugar that means they have to give up cakes, chocolates, ice cream, and sugar
in tea and coffee. When blood sugar levels get too high, they feel tired and
can’t deal with problems so well. When they’ve injected their insulin, they
need to eat right away. Otherwise their blood sugar levels become dangerously
low, they could have a hypoglycemic attack and there’s a risk that they may
fall into a coma. They also need regular visits to their physicians.

Conclusion

Diabetes is
a very common chronic disease in the world; over 2.7 million Canadians are
living with diabetes, joining over 285 million people worldwide who share this
burden. I also have several friends and family members who are suffering in
diabetes, that’s why I choose to talk about diabetes. Diabetes needs long-term
ongoing treatment, and under proper treatment there’s always no significant
symptoms. Thus some people don’t treat themselves as patients, and they don’t
like other people treat them as patients either. This is what I found when
talking to some people who with diabetes. That’s also how I perceived diabetes
before, but I’ve learned the severe complications of diabetes through the
research of this project. I realize how important it is to prevent diabetes by
eating healthy food, getting more physical activity, maintaining proper weight
and how important for those who have diabetes to control the blood glucose.
Internet is the most important source of information that I used to write my
report; I have learned lots of information about diabetes, which is really helpful
to me and my friends and family members who have diabetes.