Crime, normally, people commit crimes at different rates. A

 

     Crime, or criminal offense, is an act that
harms the individuals, community, society, or a state and is punished by law.

Crime attracts different people each of whom is driven
by either the same motive or an entirely different one; at the end, whatever
the motive is, a crime is a crime. In addition to differing motives, normally,
people commit crimes at different rates. A lot of theories and hypotheses are
proposed and put forward only for the sake of explaining why some people tend
to become criminals, how this tendency is different and varies from a person to
another, and most importantly why men are more engaged and involved in criminal
activities more than women are involved. Criminology is the scientific study of
crime that includes its causes, responses by law enforcement, and methods of
prevention. In fact, gender has been an important and crucial variable in
relation to the study of criminology. Men are involved in relatively more
criminal activities than woman are, and this applies to all societies, all
groups, and almost every crime category that exists throughout every historical
period. It has been proven by data from a variety of sources, such as
statistics, research, surveys, studies, and arrest data, that females commit
less crime than males do. Moreover, social, biological, and psychological
fields of study contributed to the explanations used to develop theories around
a man’s higher rate of crime compared to a woman’s rate of crime. Several
factors, similar and different, when applied to both men and women seem to take
different ways and greatly and negatively affect men more than they affect
women. The result is that men develop a higher tendency to commit crimes of any
kind or become criminals.

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      Generally, crime is said to be an
unlawful act punishable by an authority. It doesn’t necessarily refer to murder
but it also includes illegal acts such as forcible rape, criminal homicide,
aggravated assault, burglary, theft, and so much more. A crime isn’t always
committed in front of people’s eyes, there are far many horrible crimes that
are committed and people don’t have a slight idea and know nothing about it.

People from all over the world, from different cultural backgrounds, different
races, different religions, and different social classes commit crimes on a
daily basis, ranging from unnoticeable ones to hugely destructive and violent
ones. Of course, the rates at which people commit crimes differ and this
depends mostly on one thing: gender. 
Females involved in criminal activities at a lower rate than males do. Over
the history, statistics, facts, percentages, and studies have proven that
females engage in relatively fewer crimes
than men for several reasons. It was mentioned by Steffensmeier and Streifel
(1996) that gender is the single best predictor of criminal behavior: men
commit more crimes, and women commit less. When it comes to the ones
responsible for most mass shootings, acts of terrorism, and killing innocent
bystanders, there is only one answer: men. According to the Federal Bureau of
Prisons, 93.3 percent of federal inmates were men.  It is true that men and women are so
different, but if either of them committed a crime, they will still be
categorized under the name criminals, so why is it that a gender gap exists?
The gender gap in criminology is due to different factors including social and
gender norms, emotional and physical strength, biology, and development. In
fact, female’s and male’s crime rate have not met in many years. These factors
along with numbers and percentages from statistics contribute to finding the
reason behind this gender gap.

     Characteristics that vary between females
and males and have a significant impact on their development of criminal career
are both the moral development and the socialization. Females, from a young
age, are taught the role of a parent, so they highly gravitate towards an ethic
of care. As a result, this ethic discourages women from committing acts of
violence and prevents them from engaging in criminal activities that could hurt
others. A female is seen as caring, nurturing, and selfless when it comes to
the needs of those around her. Moreover, the idea of femininity taught to young
girls stress self-control, and the involvement of the less number of females in
crimes depends more on those with lower self-control. For this reason, women
have lower crime rates. On the other hand, masculinity taught to boys from a
young age revolves around achieving and maintaining power and status which may
drive them to commit certain crimes. Steffensmeier and Allan (1996) mentioned
that “Gender is the single best predictor of criminal behavior: men commit more
crimes, and women commit less.” They also mentioned that when it comes to the
ones responsible for most mass shootings, acts of terrorism, and killing
innocent bystanders, there is only one answer, men. In addition, the
development of motivations in both genders is also something to consider when
comparing the genders’ crime rates. Men differ greatly from women in their
motivation and styles of risk-taking, and this greatly affects their tendency
to commit crimes. Women take greater risks to maintain a valued relationship
while men take greater risks to maintain status or competitions (Steffensmeier
and Allan, 1996). To sum it up, the way a female and a male are raised in the
society differ greatly, and as they grow the things they were raised on remains
a part of their identity and makes up their personality as a person.

     Another factor that leads men to commit
more crimes compared to women is their physical difference. Most men are
generally perceived as stronger than women and therefore capable of committing
violent crimes contrary to women who may cause little to no injury. It was
found by the British crime survey in 2006, 1.42 million offenders were
sentenced for criminal offenses in
England and Wales and 80 percent of them were male, the remaining were women.

This supports the fact that women are engaged in criminal activities but in
lower rates. Males, regardless of their age, are engaged in direct physical and
verbal aggression whereas females are more engaged in indirect aggression such
as spreading rumors or gossiping. Prisonpolicy.org in 2010 shows the American
prison population by gender, “United States Incarceration Rates by Sex, 2010.”
The chart demonstrates the quantity of
individuals imprisoned per 100,000 individuals of that sex; it indicates 126
females to 1,352 males. This clearly shows how a greater number of men are
taking part in criminal activity than
women are. According to the Russian Federation (1996), men committed 86.6
percent of all serious crimes. Furthermore, a man’s physical strength allows
him to take part in different careers than that of a woman. This involvement
may open to men an access to criminal opportunities. Women, for example, are
less likely to be employed in truck driving, carpentry, and other fields that provide any opportunities for illegitimate acts
such as drug dealing and theft. In short, a man, having a physically different
structure than that of a woman, has a larger ability to be involved in
committing crimes.

     Without a doubt,
females and males are biologically different, and this in a way contributes to
their possibility of committing a crime. The female hormone, estrogen, plays a
big role in protecting both the female’s physical health and mental well-being.

It is what makes a woman capable of developing a harmonious relationship with
those around her. It is also the reason behind a female’s preference of
avoiding conflict. On the other hand, the male hormone, testosterone, is what makes most men fast-acting, short-tempered, and
aggressive. This enables men to engage in conflict and competition and results
in dominance behavior and physical violence. In fact, both genders have both
hormones but in different levels; testosterone levels in men are ten to hundred
times more than in women. Moreover, testosterone is higher in individuals with
aggressive behavior. The difference in the hormones’ presence clearly explains
why men are prone to commit crimes than women are. For example, women make up
less than 20 percent of arrests for most and crime categories in the United
States. Also, data from the United States during 1980 to 2008 portrays that men
committed 90 percent of the murders during this time. According to James
Garbarino (2015), a professor and psychologist, mentioned in his book  Listening to Killers : Lessons Learned from
My 20 Years as a Psychological Expert Witness in Murder Cases  that a form of gene known as MAOA and given
the name “warrior gene” is much more likely to be present in males than in
females. This gene combined with and stimulated by other factors can result in
an increase in aggression and violence. Statistics have shown that from 84,731
people in prison in Britain, 80,915 of them are men. According to biology, with
testosterone naturally higher in males than it is in females, the tendency for
a man to commit a crime is naturally present from within him.

 

     Moreover, from 2003 to 2012 in the United
States of America, there appeared to be a decrease in the crime rate overall,
but an increase in women’s involvement in crime rates. There was an increase in
arrests rates for women of about 2.9 percent; on the other hand, there was a
decrease in arrest rates of men of about 12.7 percent. They also argue that
there were smaller but consistent increases in terms of substance abuse
categories; however, these percentages remain less than 20 percent when
compared to the overall percentages for all crime categories. Here shows up the
downside of their argument: Female arrests remain less than 20 percent for all
crime categories. Despite the increase in female arrests, trend results from
2003 to 2012 showed that the vast majority of crimes were still committed by
men. An increase in female arrests does not necessarily mean that women are
involved in criminal activities at a higher rate compared to men, rather it has
only one meaning: women commit crimes. With the fact that women commit crimes
in mind, the fact that men are “more” involved in it doesn’t diminish
or become any less correct. In other words, women’s engagement in crimes is
still at a lower rate than men’s engagement. In addition to this, the
statistics used to support women’s involvement in crime showed percentages
ranging from 15 percent to 30 percent which when compared to men’s involvement is
very low; in all studies and researches done and conducted on this topic, men’s crime rate hasn’t dropped under 50 percent or didn’t even reached it. For
example,  arrest data from the FBI (2016)
showed that men made up 98.9 percent of those arrested for forcible rape, 87.9
percent of those arrested for robbery, 85.0 percent of those arrested for
burglary, and other percentage numbers for a variety of crime rating from as
low as 51.3 percent to as high as 98.9 percent. The numbers say something so
obvious, noticeable, and evident that brings me back to my original claim:
Women commit fewer crimes than men do.

     As a conclusion, all people are prone to
crime but in different and varying levels. When breaking down the term “people”
into the genders males and females, the gap in criminology appears and raises questions about the higher rates of crimes
committed by men compared to those committed by women. There is no doubt that
both males and females commit crimes; however, there is a great gender gap that
leads criminologists to hypothesize and
look for several reasons from several aspects to explain it. On their way to
discovering the factors affecting the crime rate of a gender- biological,
anatomical, social, developmental, and psychological- reasons were unleashed
supporting the fact that women are less likely to commit crimes than men are.

These reasons are supported by reliable facts, statistics, and studies
conducted in different parts of the world and in different fields and lead to only one conclusion: women’s
involvement in criminal activities are less compared to men’s involvement.

Whatever the range of factors contributing to the involvement in criminal
activities, it is evident that they greatly affect men more than they do affect
women.