By the end of the 1980s and beginning of

By the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s (Lefevere, 1990), the cultural movement in translation studies influenced translations on cultures: “Translation has been a major shaping force in the development of world culture” (Lefevere/ Bassnett, 1990:12). This point of view on translation at the same time permitted for a stronger stress on ideology, politics, ethics and hegemony in the context of translation. As matters of power are nearly associated with these titles, “the key topic that has provided the impetus for the new directions that translation studies have taken since the cultural turn is power” (Gentzler/ Tymoczko, 2002: xvi).

       Within the cultural movement, the emphasis on translation studies broaden from an examination of texts and contexts, such as the analysis of linguistic differences between source and target texts, to subtexts and translation-related decisions, i.e. ideology or the reasons why a text is translated or not, and who the translator of a text is. As a consequence of the cultural turn, researchers started noticing at translation from a more critical point of view, which as a result, result in a new emphasis on theoretical self-reflection within the discipline of Translation Studies itself (Tymoczko, 2007:44). The cultural turn, therefore, expanded Translation Studies research, and the advent of an awareness of the strong impact of power in relation to translation was unavoidable.

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        As a result, more studies was, for example, conducted within the discourse of post-colonialism (e.g. Spivak 1987) and feminism (e.g. Simon 1996; von Flotow, 1997), two components which are both nearly connected to questions of ideology, and to power relations. In addition, research was also done associated with a broader perspective of power relations in the context of translation (e.g. Álvarez/Vidal, 1996a; Arrojo 1997; Dimitriu, 2006). Matters of power are, therefore, both relevant in these parts but and from a broader theoretical point of view as displayed by the edited volume Translation and Power edited by Tymoczko and Gentzler in 2002.