A which a researcher had little or no control”

qualitative, multi-site case study design was used to investigate the
perspectives of successful urban turnaround middle school principals and the
similarities and differences in strategies used to turn around their failing
school.  The selection of this particular
design was determined by the problem, the questions it raised and by the type
of end product desired (Merriam, 1988). My decision to conduct this multi-site,
qualitative case study was based on my interest in understanding the phenomenon
of turnaround principals and how they go about creating change in failing
schools.  Yin (2014) helps to
distinguishes that the researcher should use the case study method when
researching a “how or why question is being asked about a contemporary set of
events or over which a researcher had little or no control” (pg.14).